From the guild of philosophers, the concerns of Descartes spilled over into theology, which became impregnated with a foundationalistic point of view. This led many eighteenth-century religious thinkers to two conclusions: first, they appealed to the Bible or the church as the foundation one could accept as classical Christian doctrine. Second, they embraced the skeptical rationalism that seemed to be the final product of the enlightened mind. [ref]Stanley J. Grenz and John R. Franke. Beyond Foundationalism: Shaping Theology in a Postmodern Context 33.[/ref]
A new cast of theological thinkers in the nineteenth-century refused to be boxed in by these two options. These thinkers sought a new foundation on which to construct their theology.